The population count in rural and urban areas narrative essay opening paragraph municipality in Acre, in andas well as information on the proportion of households with access to public services and other demographic variables were obtained from [ 25 ].
Since dengue reaches higher activity levels during the summer Dec to Marchit is more convenient to define the epidemiological year as the period between July of a year and June of the next year, as opposed to the standard calendar year.
In our context, it translates into how fast the pathogen can reach all nodes from a single source based on human mobility. This index is interpreted as the average number of secondary cases generated by a primary case at time t [ 34 ], calculated as the ratio of secondary to primary cases.
To take into account the uncertainty regarding the length of the infectious period, the results shown correspond to the average over simulations of this process using a gamma distribution with mean of 4. From this data, we computed the year when Ae.
The effective reproductive number Rt was calculated weekly for each city, from to Secondly, the presence of clusters or transmission chains is indicative of further transmission.
First, we investigate if more central cities were invaded earlier than peripheral ones, where centrality is defined as a property of the transportation network defined below.
We searched the available information to identify the year in which the presence of the mosquito was confirmed for the first time in each municipality. The only exception made was for the distance in kilometers from Rio Branco, in which case each edge received a weight equal to the corresponding distance between the connected nodes.
The literature is scarce, and a single study was found on the competence of Acrean Ae. In the case of connections where both terrestrial and pluvial routes were available between a pair of nodes, we used the former since it is the most frequently used.
The present ecological study is aimed at characterizing introduction and . Examples of such programs are agrarian reform with the creation of several In this paper, we reconstruct the history of dengue introduction and. Current dengue research aims to understand how the dengue virus causes disease. For example, researchers want to understand why bleeding and vascular.
As defined in [ 11 ], the effective distance between any pair sample cover letter for high school students pdf nodes can be obtained through the following steps: It also allows us to estimate the source-independent yearly dengue importation probability, that is, the probability of at least one importation to Acre in a given year regardless of its state of origin, which can be written as: We also constructed a mobility network with the same 22 nodes but with a total of 87 edges.
This framework allows us to estimate the most probable routes of case importation in each year to Acre. In principle, each pair of nodes can have more than one shortest path, that is, more than one way of going from the origin node to the destination one with the same number of connected edges.
As defined in [ 39 ], betweenness centrality measures the relevance of a node regarding how many shortest paths in the network include that node. From the weighted adjacency matrix W, the eigenvector centrality Ew i of each node i is given by the ith entry of the sample research paper about dengue corresponding to the largest eigenvalue of matrix W.
Coupling this probability descriptive essay samples for grade 5 the reported number of dengue cases in each state in the corresponding time window, we estimated the risk of each one state being the source of an imported dengue case to any other in the Brazilian territory.
However, since not all information was recorded every year, it is only an approximation.
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Secondly, we computed how much each municipality changed from toin terms of population growth, urbanization, garbage collection, water supply and bain cover letter quora sewage. Commutation data Mobility.
For the mobility network, we computed the effective distance from Rio Branco, Dw to each node i, which relates distance with the probability of individuals flowing from Rio Branco to the target node in Road status was tentatively classified year by year. In this network, each municipality is represented by a node while edges represent the average daily flow of individuals between pairs.
With that, we proportionally assigned a destination municipality based on the distribution for the particular subset of the entries with full information. Therefore, they should have higher exposure to infectious diseases and likely contribute to its dissemination in the network.
First, we investigated the available records of Ae.
Dengue municipal data. A period of 3 weeks was chosen because it represents one generation of dengue transmission. The network over the country map on the right panel represents the flow of airline passengers to Acre from each state.
Moreover, dengue receptivity has been linked to unplanned urbanization, fast population growth, poor infrastructure as lack of urban services and effective mosquito control, and globalization [ 49 ]. Dengue reporting is mandatory in Brazil, but most cases are defined using clinical-epidemiological criteria only.
Combining this information, the monthly case importation probability pij,m can be estimated as 1 Following the same rationale, the yearly probability of dengue importation, Pij,s, at dengue epidemiological year s, can be estimated by aggregating over all months of the corresponding epidemiological year, that is 2 This construction allows us to provide a ranking of states by their probability of exporting a dengue-infected individual to Acre, that is, the most probable sources of case importation at any given epidemiological year.
Sample research paper about dengue obtain an estimate of the flow of individuals between municipalities in Acre, we used data from the Brazilian Census [ 30 ]. The third category encompassed roads under restoration, under construction sample research paper about dengue mixed conditions.
In the case of connections where both terrestrial and pluvial routes were available between a pair of nodes, we used the former since it is the most frequently used.
For the calculations of D, two edges were disregarded: The weighted shortest path distance, dw i, jis then the connected path with the lowest sum over the weighted distance between each pair on that path. Closeness centrality C and Cw: Rio Branco is the municipality with the strongest communication with the rest of the country.
Each of those proposals focuses on a different aspect of information flow and node properties, therefore producing potentially different node ranks descriptive essay samples for grade 5 each measure [ 3738 ]. For weighted networks, strength centrality measures the intensity of the connections of a node, not only their number [ 41 ].
In the cases where municipalities were connected by more than one modal, this was sat essay introduction template into account by including all corresponding edges. Eigenvector centrality Ew: The unweighted shortest path distance d i, j from node i to j is simply the minimum number of edges forming a path along connected nodes between i and j.
Absolutely free essays on Dengue Fever. All examples were provided by straight- A students. ✍ Check them out and get an idea for your paper. Full Length Research Paper A total of samples ( dengue positive and dengue . The plan of work was based on the selection of a total of
For those on connecting flights, ANAC provides the number of travelers in transit per airport pair. We searched the available information to identify the year in which the presence of the mosquito was confirmed for the first time in each municipality.
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The usage of national airline passengers database is of great interest for the study of human interaction dynamics within a country, particularly for the study of potential disease transmission routes. Here, we considered the following centrality measures that provide different interpretations in relation to dengue exposure: In this network, the sample research paper about dengue were considered as unweighted for most of the centrality metrics defined below.
In the case of the unweighted transportation network, for each node i, C i was calculated as the inverse of the sum over the unweighted shortest path distance between node i and all other nodes in the network. Dengue cases in Brazilian states and airline flow to the state of Acre.
- However, since not all information was recorded every year, it is only an approximation.
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